|Authors||Year||Country (Area)||Age (years)||Sample size||Erosion/Wear||Index used||Permanent teeth (surfaces) Examined||Prevalence (%)|
|El Karim et al. ||2007||Sudan (Khartoum)||12–14||157||Erosion||Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index (TWI) .||UI (B, P)||66.9 %|
|Hamasha et al. ||2014||Jordan (Amman, Iibid, Al-Karak)||12–14||3 812||Erosion||
TWI  modified by Millward et al. :|
0 (B/L/O/I) No loss of enamel surface characteristics.
1 (B/L/O/I) Loss of enamel surface characteristics.
2 (B/L/O) Loss of enamel, visible dentine for less than 1/3 of the surface.
2 (I) Loss of enamel just exposing dentine.
3 (B/L/O) Loss of enamel, visible dentine for > 1/3 of the surface.
3 (I) Loss of enamel and substantial loss of dentine.
4 (B/L/O) Complete loss of enamel, or pulp exposure, or exposure of secondary dentine.
4 (I) Pulp exposure or exposure of secondary dentine.
|All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||32.2 %|
|Al Majed et al. ||2002||Saudi Arabia (Riyadh)||12–14||862||Erosion||
Modified TWI derived from the 1998 United Kingdom Adult Dental Health Survey :|
0 No obvious wear facets in enamel.
1 Marked wear facets in enamel. Enamel only, Loss of surface characterisation.
2 Wear into dentin, dentin exposed occlusally/incisally. Loss of enamel exposing dentine.
3 Extensive wear into dentin, greater than 2 mm2 of exposed dentin, pulp exposure. Loss of enamel and dentin resulting in pulpal exposure.
|UI (B, P), M1 (O)||
95 % (DE in at least one tooth)|
26 % (DE into dentine or into pulp)
McGuire et al. |
Okunseri et al. 
|13–19||1 962||Erosion||Incisors, canines, M1 (O)||
45.9 % (DE in at least one tooth):|
13–14 year-old: 39.6 %
16–17 year-old: 44.5 %
Bardsley et al. |
Milosevic et al. 
|2004||Nord west England (Preston)||14||2 385||Wear||
Simplified version of TWI dichotomised as the presence or absence of dentinal exposure (S-TWI) (1984):|
0 No wear into dentin.
1 Dentine just visible (including cupping) or dentine exposed for less than 1/3 of surface.
2 Dentin exposure greater than 1/3 of surface.
3 Complete loss of enamel on a surface, exposure of pulp or secondary dentin.
|Incisors, canines, M1 (O)||53 %|
|Bardolia et al. ||2010||UK (Isle of Man)||13–14||629||Erosion||Incisors, canines, M1 (O)||51 % (20 % if exclusion of incisal edge wear)|
|Abu-Ghazaleh et al. ||2013||Jordan (Amman)||15–16||1 602||Wear||Incisors, canines, M1 (O)||51 %|
Dugmore et al.  |
Dugmore et al. 
|UK (Leicestershire, Rutland)||
1 308 re-examined
Index of O’Brien . Depth:|
0 Normal enamel.
1 Loss of enamel surface characteristics.
2 Loss of enamel exposing dentine
3 Loss of enamel and dentine with pulp exposure.
1 Less than one third of surface involved.
2 Between one and two thirds of surface involved.
3 More than two thirds of surface involved.
12 year-old: 59.7 % (2.7 % exhibiting exposed dentine) |
14 year-old: 64.1 % (56.3 % at 12 year-old)
|Sanhouri et al. ||2010||Sudan (Khartoum)||12–14||1 138||Wear||All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||74 %|
|Gurgel et al. [9, 10]||2011||Brazil (Bauru)||12, 16||414||Erosion||UI (B, P), M1 (O)||20 % (withoutloss of dentine)|
|Habib et al. ||2013||United States (Kansas city)||12||218||Erosion||UI (B, P)||10 %|
|Van Rijkom et al. ||2002||The Netherlands (The Hague)||
Modified scale of Lussi by Van Rijkom :|
0 No visible smooth wear.
1 Slight smooth enamel wear, surface with silky-shining, ‘melted’ appearance.
2 Deep smooth enamel wear, dentine is shining through (light yellow).
3 Smooth wear into dentine on L/P or O surfaces, or less than one-half of B surfaces (yellow).
4 Smooth wear into dentine on more than one-half of B surfaces.
|All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||
3 % of 10–13 year-olds |
30 % of 15–16 year-olds
|Truin et al. ||2005||The Netherlands (The Hague)||12||324||Erosion||UI, UC (P); M1 (O)||24 %|
|El Aïdi et al. ||2008||The Netherlands (Oss)||10–12||622||Erosion||All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||32.2 % (deep enamel erosion: 1.8 %)|
|Arnadottir et al. ||2003||Iceland (Reykjavik)||15||278||Erosion||
Modified scale of Lussi (1991):|
0 No erosion.
1 Loss of surface enamel, dentine not involved (anterior teeth), enamel erosion on cusp tips that cannot be attributed to attrition (posterior teeth).
2 Erosion extending into dentine.
3 Extending close to pulp (pulp chamber visible).
|All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||21.6 %|
|Arnadottir et al. ||2010||Iceland||12, 15||1 507||Erosion||All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||
15.7 % of 12-year-olds (n = 757) |
30.7 % of 15-year-olds (n = 750)
|Peres et al. ||2005||Brazil (Joaçaba)||12||391||Erosion||
Dental erosion index of O’Sullivan .|
Grade of severity:
0 Normal enamel.
1 Matte appearance of the enamel surface with no loss of contour.
2 Loss of enamel only.
3 Loss of enamel with exposure of dentin (ADJ visible).
4 Loss of enamel and dentin beyond ADJ.
5 Loss on enamel and dentin with exposure of pulp.
Area of surface affected by erosion:
Code- Less than half of the surface affected.
Code + More than half of the surface affected.
|Correr et al. ||2009||Brazil (Piracicaba, São Paulo)||12||389||Erosion||UI, M1||26 %|
|Wang et al. ||2010||China (Guangzhou)||12–13||1 499||Erosion||Incisors, M1||27.3 %|
|Vargas-Ferreira et al. ||2011||Brazil (Santa Maria)||11–14||870||Erosion||UI, M1||7.2 %|
|Kumar et al. ||2013||Karnataka, South India||11–14||605||Erosion||All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||8.9 %|
|Aguiar et al. ||2014||Brazil (Campina Grande)||15–19||675||Erosion||UI, M1||21 %|
Auad et al. |
Waterhouse et al. 
|South east Brazil (TrêsCorações)||13–14||458||Erosion||
Criteria used in UK National Diet and nutrition survey :|
1 Enamel only. Less than one third of surface involved.
2 Enamel and dentine. One third up to two thirds of surface involved.
3 Enamel, dentine and pulp. Two thirds or more of surface involved.
|UI (B/P), M1 (O)||34.1 % (no evidence of erosion affecting dentine)|
|Huew et al. [19–21]||2011||Libya (Benghazi)||12||791||Erosion||UI (B/P), M1 (O)||40.8 %|
|Margaratis et al. ||2011||Greece (Attica)||14–16||502||Erosion||
BEWE scoring system : |
0 No erosive tooth wear.
1 Initial loss of surface texture.
2 Distinct defect; hard tissue loss < 50 % of the surface area.
3 Hard tissue loss ≥ 50 % of the surface area.
|All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||
58 % (BEWE >0)|
If S-TWI on incisors, M1(O): 51.6 %
|Zhang et al. ||2014||China (Hong Kong)||12||600||Erosion||All permanent teeth (all surfaces)||
75 % (BEWE > 0) but no severe erosion|
(BEWE = 3)
|Alvarez Loureiro L. et al. ||2015||Montevideo (Uruguay)||12||1 136||Erosion||All permanent teeth (B, P, O)||52.9 % (BEWE >0)|