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Table 1 Prevalence of dental erosion in adolescents (12–16 years-old) assessed on a population-based samples (prevalence studies published since 2000)

From: Dental erosion in French adolescents

Authors Year Country (Area) Age (years) Sample size Erosion/Wear Index used Permanent teeth (surfaces) Examined Prevalence (%)
El Karim et al. [23] 2007 Sudan (Khartoum) 12–14 157 Erosion Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index (TWI) [51]. UI (B, P) 66.9 %
Hamasha et al. [15] 2014 Jordan (Amman, Iibid, Al-Karak) 12–14 3 812 Erosion TWI [51] modified by Millward et al. [52]:
0 (B/L/O/I) No loss of enamel surface characteristics.
1 (B/L/O/I) Loss of enamel surface characteristics.
2 (B/L/O) Loss of enamel, visible dentine for less than 1/3 of the surface.
2 (I) Loss of enamel just exposing dentine.
3 (B/L/O) Loss of enamel, visible dentine for > 1/3 of the surface.
3 (I) Loss of enamel and substantial loss of dentine.
4 (B/L/O) Complete loss of enamel, or pulp exposure, or exposure of secondary dentine.
4 (I) Pulp exposure or exposure of secondary dentine.
All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 32.2 %
Al Majed et al. [16] 2002 Saudi Arabia (Riyadh) 12–14 862 Erosion Modified TWI derived from the 1998 United Kingdom Adult Dental Health Survey [53]:
0 No obvious wear facets in enamel.
1 Marked wear facets in enamel. Enamel only, Loss of surface characterisation.
2 Wear into dentin, dentin exposed occlusally/incisally. Loss of enamel exposing dentine.
3 Extensive wear into dentin, greater than 2 mm2 of exposed dentin, pulp exposure. Loss of enamel and dentin resulting in pulpal exposure.
UI (B, P), M1 (O) 95 % (DE in at least one tooth)
26 % (DE into dentine or into pulp)
McGuire et al. [3]
Okunseri et al. [13]
2009
2011
United States
(NHANES)
13–19 1 962 Erosion Incisors, canines, M1 (O) 45.9 % (DE in at least one tooth):
13–14 year-old: 39.6 %
16–17 year-old: 44.5 %
Bardsley et al. [26]
Milosevic et al. [27]
2004 Nord west England (Preston) 14 2 385 Wear Simplified version of TWI dichotomised as the presence or absence of dentinal exposure (S-TWI) (1984):
0 No wear into dentin.
1 Dentine just visible (including cupping) or dentine exposed for less than 1/3 of surface.
2 Dentin exposure greater than 1/3 of surface.
3 Complete loss of enamel on a surface, exposure of pulp or secondary dentin.
Incisors, canines, M1 (O) 53 %
Bardolia et al. [31] 2010 UK (Isle of Man) 13–14 629 Erosion Incisors, canines, M1 (O) 51 % (20 % if exclusion of incisal edge wear)
Abu-Ghazaleh et al. [22] 2013 Jordan (Amman) 15–16 1 602 Wear Incisors, canines, M1 (O) 51 %
Dugmore et al. [32]
Dugmore et al. [28]
2003
2004
UK (Leicestershire, Rutland) 12
14
1 753
1 308 re-examined
Erosion Index of O’Brien [32]. Depth:
0 Normal enamel.
1 Loss of enamel surface characteristics.
2 Loss of enamel exposing dentine
3 Loss of enamel and dentine with pulp exposure. 
Area:
1 Less than one third of surface involved.
2 Between one and two thirds of surface involved.
3 More than two thirds of surface involved.
Incisors, M1 12 year-old: 59.7 % (2.7 % exhibiting exposed dentine) 
14 year-old: 64.1 % (56.3 % at 12 year-old)
Sanhouri et al. [18] 2010 Sudan (Khartoum) 12–14 1 138 Wear All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 74 %
Gurgel et al. [9, 10] 2011 Brazil (Bauru) 12, 16 414 Erosion UI (B, P), M1 (O) 20 % (withoutloss of dentine)
Habib et al. [12] 2013 United States (Kansas city) 12 218 Erosion UI (B, P) 10 %
Van Rijkom et al. [30] 2002 The Netherlands (The Hague) 10–13
15–16
345
400
Erosion Modified scale of Lussi by Van Rijkom [54]:
0 No visible smooth wear.
1 Slight smooth enamel wear, surface with silky-shining, ‘melted’ appearance.
2 Deep smooth enamel wear, dentine is shining through (light yellow).
3 Smooth wear into dentine on L/P or O surfaces, or less than one-half of B surfaces (yellow).
4 Smooth wear into dentine on more than one-half of B surfaces.
All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 3 % of 10–13 year-olds 
30 % of 15–16 year-olds
Truin et al. [33] 2005 The Netherlands (The Hague) 12 324 Erosion UI, UC (P); M1 (O) 24 %
El Aïdi et al. [34] 2008 The Netherlands (Oss) 10–12 622 Erosion All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 32.2 % (deep enamel erosion: 1.8 %)
Arnadottir et al. [29] 2003 Iceland (Reykjavik) 15 278 Erosion Modified scale of Lussi (1991):
0 No erosion.
1 Loss of surface enamel, dentine not involved (anterior teeth), enamel erosion on cusp tips that cannot be attributed to attrition (posterior teeth).
2 Erosion extending into dentine.
3 Extending close to pulp (pulp chamber visible).
All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 21.6 %
Arnadottir et al. [2] 2010 Iceland 12, 15 1 507 Erosion All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 15.7 % of 12-year-olds (n = 757) 
30.7 % of 15-year-olds (n = 750)
Peres et al. [7] 2005 Brazil (Joaçaba) 12 391 Erosion Dental erosion index of O’Sullivan [55].
Grade of severity:
0 Normal enamel.
1 Matte appearance of the enamel surface with no loss of contour.
2 Loss of enamel only.
3 Loss of enamel with exposure of dentin (ADJ visible).
4 Loss of enamel and dentin beyond ADJ.
5 Loss on enamel and dentin with exposure of pulp. 
Area of surface affected by erosion:
Code- Less than half of the surface affected.
Code + More than half of the surface affected.
UI 13 %
Correr et al. [4] 2009 Brazil (Piracicaba, São Paulo) 12 389 Erosion UI, M1 26 %
Wang et al. [24] 2010 China (Guangzhou) 12–13 1 499 Erosion Incisors, M1 27.3 %
Vargas-Ferreira et al. [11] 2011 Brazil (Santa Maria) 11–14 870 Erosion UI, M1 7.2 %
Kumar et al. [17] 2013 Karnataka, South India 11–14 605 Erosion All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 8.9 %
Aguiar et al. [8] 2014 Brazil (Campina Grande) 15–19 675 Erosion UI, M1 21 %
Auad et al. [5]
Waterhouse et al. [6]
2007
2008
South east Brazil (TrêsCorações) 13–14 458 Erosion Criteria used in UK National Diet and nutrition survey [56]:
0 Normal.
1 Enamel only. Less than one third of surface involved.
2 Enamel and dentine. One third up to two thirds of surface involved.
3 Enamel, dentine and pulp. Two thirds or more of surface involved.
UI (B/P), M1 (O) 34.1 % (no evidence of erosion affecting dentine)
Huew et al. [1921] 2011 Libya (Benghazi) 12 791 Erosion UI (B/P), M1 (O) 40.8 %
Margaratis et al. [35] 2011 Greece (Attica) 14–16 502 Erosion BEWE scoring system [46]:
0 No erosive tooth wear.
1 Initial loss of surface texture.
2 Distinct defect; hard tissue loss < 50 % of the surface area.
3 Hard tissue loss ≥ 50 % of the surface area.
All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 58 % (BEWE >0)
If S-TWI on incisors, M1(O): 51.6 %
Zhang et al. [25] 2014 China (Hong Kong) 12 600 Erosion All permanent teeth (all surfaces) 75 % (BEWE > 0) but no severe erosion
(BEWE = 3)
Alvarez Loureiro L. et al. [14] 2015 Montevideo (Uruguay) 12 1 136 Erosion All permanent teeth (B, P, O) 52.9 % (BEWE >0)
  1. B Buccal, I Incisal, P Palatal, L Lingual, O Occlusal, UI upper incisors, UC upper canines, M1 first molars, UK United Kingdom, BEWE Basic Erosive Wear Examination